树莓派配置无线网络

一、配置无线的注意事项

1  树莓派主要是用来折腾的,所以难免有些bug , 不像正规的Linux发行版,遇到问题都有正规的解决方案。无线网络的配置需要编辑/etc/dhcpcd.conf文件才能生效,而/etc/network/interfaces这个文件配置ip是不会生效的,这种情况适用于raspberry Jessie版本,而另一个常用的wheezy版本则相反。

具体诡异的解释请看  https://blog.csdn.net/yjbaobo/article/details/75146840

2  无线需要先关联硬件,再配置网络信息,如ip、网关、DNS等。

二、配置过程

1  配置硬件关联

编辑/etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf,填入内容如下,

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo cat /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
country=GB
ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev
update_config=1
network={
        ssid="S6"
        psk="11111111"
    priority=5
 }

network={
        ssid="CONUNDRUM"
        psk="11111111"
    scan_ssid=1
       # key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
    priority=3
 }

network={
        ssid="2HND"
    scan_ssid=1
        psk="11111111"
       # key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
    priority=1
 }

ssid —  WIFI名称

psk —  WIFI密码

priority —  优先级,越大优先级越低

scan_ssid —  是否扫描隐藏网络,为1表示扫描,如果你的无线隐藏了,需要开启此选项

2  配置网络信息

编辑/etc/dhcpcd.conf文件,按照以下格式填入,

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo cat /etc/dhcpcd.conf  
# A sample configuration for dhcpcd.
# See dhcpcd.conf(5) for details.

# Allow users of this group to interact with dhcpcd via the control socket.
#controlgroup wheel

# Inform the DHCP server of our hostname for DDNS.
hostname

# Use the hardware address of the interface for the Client ID.
clientid
# or
# Use the same DUID + IAID as set in DHCPv6 for DHCPv4 ClientID as per RFC4361.
#duid

# Persist interface configuration when dhcpcd exits.
persistent

# Rapid commit support.
# Safe to enable by default because it requires the equivalent option set
# on the server to actually work.
option rapid_commit

# A list of options to request from the DHCP server.
option domain_name_servers, domain_name, domain_search, host_name
option classless_static_routes
# Most distributions have NTP support.
option ntp_servers
# Respect the network MTU.
# Some interface drivers reset when changing the MTU so disabled by default.
#option interface_mtu

# A ServerID is required by RFC2131.
require dhcp_server_identifier

# Generate Stable Private IPv6 Addresses instead of hardware based ones
slaac private

# A hook script is provided to lookup the hostname if not set by the DHCP
# server, but it should not be run by default.
nohook lookup-hostname
   interface eth0
      static ip_address=172.17.2.176/24
      static routers=172.17.2.254
      static domain_name_servers=223.6.6.6
      static domain_name_servers=223.5.5.5

   interface wlan0
      dhcp
      #static ip_address=172.17.2.177/24
      #static routers=172.17.2.254
      #static domain_name_servers=223.6.6.6
      #static domian_name_servers=223.5.5.5


我配置的是自动获取ip,选择的是dhcp

如果你想设置静态ip,可以使用上面注释掉的static示例

3  配置开机启动

原本以为在rc.local里敲几个命令实现开机配置无线网络,可是有BUG,每次都无法生效。

使用另外一个方法,在/etc/init.d目录建立一个脚本,内容如下,

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ cat /etc/init.d/init-app
#!/bin/sh
#/etc/init.d/init-app
 
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides:          init app
# Required-Start:    $remote_fs $syslog
# Required-Stop:     $remote_fs $syslog
# Default-Start:     2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop:      0 1 6
# Short-Description: init-app
# Description: This service is used to start init shell
### END INIT INFO

case "$1" in
    start)
        echo "Starting init.sh"
        sh /srv/sh/init.sh
        ;;
    stop)
        echo "Stop"
        ;;
        
    *)
        echo "Usage: service init-app start|stop"
        exit 1
        ;;
esac
exit 0


加上执行权限,

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/init-app

具体的启动脚本放在/srv/sh/init.sh里,内容如下,

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ cat /srv/sh/init.sh
#!/bin/sh

LOG="/var/log/init.log"
LOG_SIZE="${du -m ${LOG} 2>/dev/null | awk '{print $1}'}"
host="peloo.cn"
echo -e "\n—————-$(date)\n" >>${LOG}

[ -e ${LOG} ] || touch ${LOG}

#empty LOG file if > 10MB
[ ${LOG_SIZE} -gt 6 ] && >${LOG}

start_wlan() {

echo -e "\n—————-$(date)\n" >>${LOG}
wpa_supplicant -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf  >>${LOG}
dhcpcd wlan0 >>${LOG}

}

start_wlan

echo -e "\n—————-$(date)\n" >>${LOG}
    
exit 0

蓝色部分解释:

A  关联无线设备

B  调用dhcpcd配置网络

此时配置完毕,重启树莓派,sudo init 6 , 查看ip地址如下,

查看硬件关联情况,

至于后面无线稳不稳定,还需要长期观察,如果出问题,大不了编写个脚本自动重连。

 

PS: 树莓派真够折腾人的。

 

 

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